Friday, May 22, 2020
Expression: Par contreÃ Pronunciation: [par co(n)tr] Meaning: on the other hand, whereas, but Literal translation: by against Register: normal Explanation The French expression par contre is used to contrast two statements: Cet article est fascinant. Par contre, la grammaire est Ã ©pouvantable.This article is fascinating. The grammar, on the other hand, is appalling.Si Clara est trÃ ¨s sympa, par contre son mari est agaÃ §ant.Clara is really nice, whereas her husband is annoying. Grammar French grammarians and dictionaries have argued about par contre for hundreds of years. All but purists now generally agree that par contre is acceptable when there is a clear contrast between two ideas and the second one is negative, as in the above examples. However, they take a lesser view of par contre when it introduces a second statement which supports, compensates for, or adds information to the first. Many French speakers use par contre in this way, but generally speaking, its better to reserve it for negative meanings, and instead use en revanche when the meaning is positive or neutral. Jai oubliÃ © de faire mes devoirs. Par contre Ã¢â¬â En revanche, il y avait un supplÃ ©ant et il ne les a pas ramassÃ ©s.Ã¢â¬â¹I forgot to do my homework. But there was a substitute teacher and he didnt collect it When the two statements are not in oppositionÃ¢â¬âthat is, when youre really just in need of a filler or transitionÃ¢â¬âsomething like mais is preferable. Tu ne dois pas venir avec nous. Par contre Ã¢â¬â Mais est-ce que tu sais oÃ ¹ sont mes clÃ ©sÃ ?You dont have to come with us. But do you know where my keys are? The Great Par Contre Debate French grammarians and dictionaries have argued aboutÃ par contreÃ for hundreds of years. It all started with VoltairesÃ Conseils Ã un journalisteÃ (1737): La plupart des gens de lettres qui travaillent en Hollande, oÃ ¹ se fait le plus grand commerce de livres, sinfectent dune autre espÃ ¨ce de barbarie, qui vient du langage des marchandsÃ ; ils commencent Ã Ã ©crireÃ par contre, pourÃ au contraire. Voltaires criticism was embellished more than a century later in theÃ Dictionnaire de la langue franÃ §aise, better known asÃ LittrÃ ©Ã (1863-1872), setting the stage for the debate that continues even today: Par contreÃ est une locution dont plusieurs se servent, pour direÃ en compensation,Ã en revancheÃ :Ã Si les artisans sont ordinairement pauvres, par contre ils se portent bienÃ ;Ã Si le vin est cher cette annÃ ©e, par contre il est bon. Cette locution, qui a Ã ©tÃ © tout particuliÃ ¨rement critiquÃ ©e par Voltaire et qui paraÃ ®t provenir du langage commercial, peut se justifier grammaticalement, puisque la langue franÃ §aise admet, en certains cas, de doubles prÃ ©positions,Ã de contre,Ã daprÃ ¨s, etc. mais elle ne se justifie guÃ ¨re logiquement,Ã par contreÃ signifiant bien plutÃ ´tÃ contrairementÃ queÃ en compensation, et devant provenir de quelque ellipse commerciale (par contreÃ ayant Ã ©tÃ © dit pourÃ par contre-envoi)Ã ; en tout cas, il convient de suivre lavis de Voltaire et de ne transporter cette locution hors du langage commercial dans aucun style. InÃ Attendu que...Ã (1943), AndrÃ © Gide offered perhaps the first rejoinder: Je sais bien que Voltaire etÃ LittrÃ ©Ã proscrivent cette locution; mais Ã «Ã en revancheÃ Ã » et Ã «Ã en compensationÃ Ã », formules de remplacement queÃ LittrÃ ©Ã propose, ne me paraissent pas toujours convenables [Ã¢â¬ ¦] Trouveriez-vous dÃ ©cent quune femme vous diseÃ : Ã «Ã Oui, mon frÃ ¨re et mon mari sont revenus saufs de la guerre; en revanche jy ai perdu mes deux filsÃ Ã »Ã ? ou Ã «Ã la moisson na pas Ã ©tÃ © mauvaise, mais en compensation toutes les pommes de terre ont pourriÃ Ã »Ã ? Ã «Ã Par contreÃ Ã » mest nÃ ©cessaire et, me pardonneÃ LittrÃ ©, je my tiens. Albert DoppagnesÃ Trois aspects du franÃ §ais contemporainÃ (1966) is equally blunt: le succÃ ¨s quont rÃ ©servÃ © Ã Ã par contreÃ la plupart des Ã ©crivains du XXe siÃ ¨cle, le fait quil ne soit pas toujours remplaÃ §able par les locutions par lesquelles on propose de le remplacer, lÃ ©gitiment tout Ã fait lutilisation de cette locution. Meanwhile,Ã par contreÃ had been included as a business term in the AcadÃ ©mie franÃ §aises 1835 and 1878 editions, then excluded in 1932, only to be re-added in 1988 along with aÃ lukewarm comment: CondamnÃ ©e parÃ LittrÃ ©Ã daprÃ ¨s une remarque de Voltaire, la locution adverbialeÃ Par contreÃ a Ã ©tÃ © utilisÃ ©e par dexcellents auteurs franÃ §ais, de Stendhal Ã Montherlant, en passant par Anatole France, Henri de RÃ ©gnier, AndrÃ © Gide, Marcel Proust, Jean Giraudoux, Georges Duhamel, Georges Bernanos, Paul Morand,Ã Antoine de Saint-ExupÃ ©ry, etc. Elle ne peut donc Ã ªtre considÃ ©rÃ ©e comme fautive, mais lusage sest Ã ©tabli de la dÃ ©conseiller, chaque fois que lemploi dun autre adverbe est possible. Ce nest pas toujours le cas [comme] Gide remarquait [...] Le Bon UsageÃ (13e Ã ©dition, 2004) is more enthusiastic: Par contre, qui nest pas rÃ ©cent [...], est entrÃ © dans lusage gÃ ©nÃ ©ral, mÃ ªme le plus exigeant, au cours du XIXe s., malgrÃ © la rÃ ©sistance des puristes. [...] Nous pourrions citer plus dune centaine dauteurs, notamment environ quarante membres de lAcad. fr. [...] Les puristes recommendant duser den compensationÃ ou den revanche, lesquels ne conviennent pas toujours, comme Gide le fait remarquer [...] AndÃ Le Grand RobertÃ (CD-ROM v2.0, 2005) agrees: Par contreÃ a Ã ©tÃ © condamnÃ © par certains pÃ ©dagogues puristes; cependant il nest pas toujours remplaÃ §able. Il introduit un avantage ou un inconvÃ ©nient, alors queÃ en compensationÃ etÃ en revancheÃ nintroduisent quun avantage. Si on peut les employer dans la phrase Ã «Ã Sil na pas de cÃ âur, par contre il est intelligentÃ Ã »,Ã il estÃ impossible de les substituer Ã Ã par contreÃ dans celle-ciÃ : Ã «Ã Sil est intelligent, par contre il na pas de cÃ âurÃ Ã ».Ã MaisÃ ninsiste pas assez sur lopposition.Ã Au contraireÃ marque une opposition trop prÃ ©cise. Purists may continue to disagree, but in my opinion, Hanse-BlampainsÃ Nouveau dictionnaire des difficultÃ ©s du franÃ §ais moderneÃ (2005) offers the best analysis and the final word on the subject: Par contre, qui exprime une opposition de faÃ §on plus nuancÃ ©e queÃ mais, est entrÃ © depuis trÃ ¨s longtemps dans le meilleur usage, malgrÃ © Voltaire et les puristes, et est dailleurs utile et mÃ ªme parfois nÃ ©cessaire. On le dÃ ©finit mal en le donnant comme synonyme de Ã «en compensation, en revancheÃ », qui expriment aussi une opposition.Ã En compensation, commeÃ en contrepartie, doit introduire un avantage.Ã En revancheÃ doit aussi logiquement avoir toujours ce sens, liÃ © Ã celui deÃ revanche; mais on le substitue parfois Ã Ã par contre, quon nose employer:Ã Il joue fort bien du violon; en revanche cest un piÃ ¨tre chef dorchestreÃ (GLLF). Il faudrait direÃ par contre, qui est plus neutre et (cest capital) introduit un avantage ou un inconvÃ ©nient opposÃ © Ã ce qui prÃ ©cÃ ¨de:Ã Il est un peu paresseux,Ã par contreÃ il est honnÃ ªteÃ ouÃ Il est assurÃ ©ment honnÃ ªte,Ã par contreÃ il est trop naÃ ¯f. LorsqueÃ par contreÃ introduit lÃ ©noncÃ © dune perte, dun inconvÃ ©nient, il ne peut Ã ªtre remplacÃ © parÃ en compensationÃ et il ne devrait pas lÃ ªtre parÃ en revanche.Ã AndrÃ © Gide la fort bien montrÃ ©, il y a longtemps dÃ ©jÃ [...]
Saturday, May 9, 2020
Should Violent Video Games be Banned? Ã¢â¬Å"Learning is a deep human need, like mating and eating, and like all such needs it is meant to be deeply pleasurable to human beings.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢ James Paul Gee, Why Video Games Are Good for Your Soul: Pleasure and Learning. Some people have controversial argument that violent video games should be banned, claiming about the content of video games can change the behavior and attitudes of the players. Since the early 2000s, advocates of video games have emphasized their use as an expressive medium, arguing for their protection under the laws governing freedom of speech and also as an educational tool. Violent video games allow players to divert their aggression into the virtual world instead of the real one.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some people want to play video games which causes many negative side effects on children, but video games can also be good for developing cognitive, physical, and many more hidden skills. Furthermore, they can also be cheaper than television . Although there are the negative side effects of video games, I have found evidence of many positive effects games have on children. Video games are looked down upon by parents as time waster, and worse, some education experts think that these games corrupt the brain. Violent video games are readily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior. However, many scientists and psychologists find that video games can actually have many benefits, the main one being making kids smart. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skill that they will need in the future. Video games help young people to understand and learn to control their emotions. When they faced with a problem and disappointed, they often do not know how to react. The society puts a heavy weight of expectations on teens and often they are not able to fulfill the hopes of their parents and teachers. It leads to an array of mixed emotions and feeling that children do not know how to deal with. When playing video games that trigger the outburst of strong emotions, children learn to recognize theirShow MoreRelatedViolent Games And Violent Video Games1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAs video game images become increasingly more realistic and graphic. Therefore, is there any link between the violence depicted in those games and violence in real life? Students are the main group people who played violent video games very often. Also, losing a game causes many people to have a negative impact. Last, the attitudes on violent game and antisocial. Games are everywhere around us, such as cellphone s, televisions, or computers, but violent games are the most popular type of game. TheRead MoreVideo Game : Violent Video Games927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe video game industry possible causing behavioral problems for people of all ages. Video game violence isnÃ¢â¬â¢t breaking news for years people have played games with murder and sexual innuendos. People ask why violent video games are so attractive, maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s a way to escape from real life or even therapeutic. History shows us that human being like violence, in roman time gladiators killed people and animals for sport with huge number of people as an audience. Today the video game industry has foundRead MoreVideo Games and Violent Video Games Effect1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages A video game is Ã¢â¬Å"an electronic game in which players control images on a television or computer screenÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster). Video games have been entertaining and challenging gamers since the Game Boy to modern console games. Despite the simplicity of the definition of video games, a video game, especially ones containing violence can have a large effect on the gamer. Because of the realism and advancements in the video game industry, video games can influence the player, and can make the gamerRead MoreVideo Game Violence : Violent Video Games1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDavis English III 27 March 2015 Video Game Violence Violent video games have been being created since the first console. Yet only recently have we been blaming them for aggression in the player. We as humans have a tendency to blame our violent behavior on other things rather thin ourselves. Now aggression is being defined in many ways in this situation but mainly people point to the anger thatÃ¢â¬â¢s brought out in the real world after the game or maybe itÃ¢â¬â¢s the gamersÃ¢â¬â¢ tendency to haveRead MoreViolent Video Games Are Violent1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages2016 Violent Video Games Effect The future of entertainment revolves around technology which perhaps has caused video games to become more and more realistic over time. Although they often are entertaining, the contents have become more violent and disturbing as computing technology has become much more advanced. These days, the popularity of violent video games has caused an increase in controversy. Many parents and researchers say the video games are now becoming too violent. The violent videoRead MoreViolent Video Games 886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerican child spends on video games per week is 8 hours? ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s a more than a whole school day! Many kids today are spending more and more time on video games. Not only is it damaging to the brain and body, but it also can cause insanity and dementia. Many of the mass murderers of the past have been found to play violent video games. Teens should not be permitted to play violent video games to ensure that they will not become aggressive. The foundation of the first video games was the CRT. The cathodeRead MoreVideo Game And Violent Video Games1574 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlong with the rapid development of the internet in recent years, game and violence game have become companions of young people. We could not deny the fact that video game already has strong attraction for many people. Especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, when work pressure is growing, gaming is an effective solution to relieve tension, dispel feeling of fatigue, anxiety. Playing the normal video game, which it not include any violence scenes, plus regulatory reasonable playing time can help players relaxedRead MoreRegulation of Violent Video Games2128 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIssue: Video games are the primary source of entertainment for children nowadays. Be it in form of Wii Games, Nintendo or Xbox; children nowadays seems to be practically smitten with video games. It was also shown as evidence in some cases that the influence of such games is so huge that few children start speaking and acting like characters in the video games. Many video games, dating back to 1976Ã¢â¬â¢s Death Race, contain some or other aspect of violence, such as killing the bad person, driving dangerousRead MoreVideo Game Violence And Violent Video Games2382 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAbstract The issue of video game violence seems to be a hot topic right now after several shootings have occurred and made a connection to the shooters being video gamers. In looking at past research it is apparent that there seems to large amounts of research that contradict one work to another. Although I would have been interested in conducting a poll of the publics opinion regarding the use of violent video games and their connection to mass shootings I was not able to conduct the researchRead MoreVideo Games And Violent Violence1345 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOn television, iPads, cell phones, and even specially made devices for babies and children. Video games are interwoven with our daily lives. For many, it is just an innocent way to relax or enjoy themselves. For others, it has become an addiction in which they cannot escape. Not all video games are violent, but what about those that are? Does society have an obligation to monitor every type of video game children and adults play simply because they believe it may lead to acts of violence? Psychologists
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I am currently working on a piece of sociological coursework which requires me to explore the relationship between childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fairy tale stories and gendered roles. From birth biological differences exist between males and females. Sociologists refer to this as sex differences. We will write a custom essay sample on Do Gender Role Stereotypes exist in children(TM)s fairy tale stories? or any similar topic only for you Order Now As we grow older these differences between males and females involve more than biology; they are gendered. Gendered roles are learned. They guide us to behave and perform in ways which fulfill our gender role stereotype. This is achieved via the process of socialisation. When talking in relation to the nature vs. nurture debate, sociologists believe that our gender roles are nurtured by our parents, societal expectations and media influences. The main aim of my coursework is to find out if gender role stereotypes exist in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fairy tale stories. I aim to do this by looking at the ways in which fairytale images transform into guided behaviours. My additional aims in which I will investigate include: * Being able to find out what massages fairytale stories send to youngsters from a sociological point of view. I have decided to investigate gender role socialisation because I am extremely interested in the role played by society in the development of this. Furthermore, I would like to find out what makes these stereotypes so common and how fairy tale stories portray gender roles in relation to the images it presents to young children. Sociological research also concerns the roots of gender role within society. Therefore, it would make sense to see how these sociologists have expressed their views on this specific topic. For example, Teya Cherland is a sociologist who researched the topic of gender role stereotyping in fairytale stories and, she made it clear that the insecurities evolving around many young children is growing as they watch and read more and more fairytales. Sociologists believe that we arenÃ¢â¬â¢t born to be boys and girls; we learn our gender roles as we grow older. This is a very sentimental point because in my coursework I want to explore gender role stereotyping from a Nature vs. Nurture perspective. My Secondary Sources I have decided to focus on some secondary sources in order to find out what other sociologists think about my chosen topic. The following sources will help me to gather some crucial information to help me meet my overall aim which is to find out if gender role stereotypes exist in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fairytale stories. I also want to understand this topic from a sociological point of view and therefore, I will also be using these sources to find out if what I have discovered pairs up to other sociologistÃ¢â¬â¢s discoveries. My first results came from an article called Ecclectical. The article was written by a sociologist called Teya Cherland and was publicised in April 2006. In it, Teya explained that young boys and girls hide themselves away from reality because fairytales make them feel insecure of the true beauty that exists within them. Other than this, she outlined that boys and girls find it hard to distinguish reality from the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"dream worldÃ¢â¬ that they visualise from watching T.V. She said, Ã¢â¬Å"ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature plays a key role in shaping a childÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of those around her/him and the world they live in.Ã¢â¬ She then carried on saying Ã¢â¬Å"it is vital to understand how they view real lifeÃ¢â¬ This made it clear, her belief was that fairytale stories deliver wrong messages to young kids and make them feel a certain way which can build on their insecurities. This links in with my aim because in my coursework I want to involve some sociological processes and this article brings up the issue of the Nature vs. Nurture debate and helps me to find a way how to link young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s influences into my query. My second source came from an article titled Ã¢â¬Å"Sex RolesÃ¢â¬ . This particular article was written by Angela M. Gooden and was publicised In July 2001. In the article it was outlined that childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s books are served as a socializing tool that passed to the next generation. To explain, in her article she said the following, Ã¢â¬Å"ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s books have the potential of altering perceptions and possibly helping to change livesÃ¢â¬ This relates back to my investigation because the article explains the fact that children are influenced by societies teachings and, one of my smaller aims are to be able to find out if children are influenced by the images they see and the things they hear when watching fairytales. My third and last source came from a text called Gender identities. This text was written by a sociologist named Ruth and the year of its publication was 2006(April 21st) Ruth investigated on different sociologists own thoughts about gender role and found out that according to the 1990s, boys and girls are directed to different subjects from an early age. She found that from some people stick to the idea that, Teachers pay more attention to boys than girl in the classroom and that the term Ã¢â¬Å"girl powerÃ¢â¬ Ignores continuing structures of inequality. Much of her information supported the idea that the way in which boys and girls are brought up affects they way they feel about Ã¢â¬Å"gender role stereotypingÃ¢â¬ when their older. The following quote was mentioned in the article. Ã¢â¬Å"Murdock (1949) and Parsons (1955), who were functionalists, both thought that women and men had inbuilt differences that made women more suitable to be carers and men to be breadwinners.Ã¢â¬ This links in with my investigation because in order to find out whether gender role stereotypes exist in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fairytale stories, I need to understand the true meaning of the term Ã¢â¬Å"gender roleÃ¢â¬ and how society portrays it which is provided for me in this source. Overall, all of my chosen sources have enhanced my understanding on my chosen ton topic. I am now able to use this information to help me to answer and evaluate my essay title. How to cite Do Gender Role Stereotypes exist in children(TM)s fairy tale stories?, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
The Maltese Falcon Review Essay The Maltese Falcon is the classic hardboiled private-eyed movie that is a great example of prototypical film noir. The main character Sam Spade is undeniably a tough and smart guy whose actions are provoked by a stunning femme fatale Brigid OShaughnessy. While everyone in the story eagers to find a priceless artifact, the black statuette of a Maltese Falcon, and is driven by their greed, Spade acts as he is to fulfill his own personal code of honor often ignoring the law. He knows how to handle the police, and he is good at revealing thieves and liars, yet inflicts pain upon himself and his loved one in the process. The belief that love can conquer all is certainly does not apply to Spades worldview. John Huston, the director of The Maltese Falcon, combined Hollywood techniques with elements of German Expressionism to create a style that is composed of dramatic shadows, dim light, and the kind of atmosphere that goes along with dark plots and shady characters. The street scenes are in the darkness of night and, with the exception of Spades office, few sets are well-lighted. Such emphasis on the use of light combined with interesting camera angles create an off-balance feel to the world and portrays the dark side of human nature with cynicism and duplicity. Kasper Gutman, for example, is often shot from below, so he occupies the space and towers over the other people in the scene, indicating his power and domination. We will write a custom essay sample on The Maltese Falcon Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Maltese Falcon Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Maltese Falcon Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The effective use of music, lighting and camera creates a dramatic and frightening atmosphere in the scene when Spade stands on the promenade looking down at the ArcherÃ¢â¬â¢s dead body. Despite the overall visual darkness of The Maltese Falcon, it is not a depressing film due to its liveliness and acceleration along with the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ use of humor in dialogues. Viewers get engaged with the rhythm of the film and even the pessimistic ending does not invoke disappointment or sadness.
Friday, March 20, 2020
10 Literature Essay Topics on #8220;The Red and the White A Family Saga of the American West#8221; The Red and the White: A Family Saga of the American West by Andrew R. Graybill is one of the interesting works of literature that covers race relations on the frontier and re-visits an obscure historical event that has no marker commemorating its location. A good read for individuals interested in the history of the 19th century West, it is part of many higher education courses as it is quite rich with history, details, and themes. If you have to write a literature essay on The Red and the White: A Family Saga of the American West, you first need to decide on a topic. While you are welcome to check our list of 20 topics on The Red and the White for a literature essay, take a look at the following 10 facts first to understand this book better and possibly come up with your own topic. Ã¢â¬Å"The Red and the WhiteÃ¢â¬ by Andrew R. Graybill is a multi-layered read. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Red and the White: A Family Saga of the American WestÃ¢â¬ , Andrew R. Graybill tells the story of the Clarke family. The narrative focuses on events which occur during multiple generations of the Clarkes. The book is a thought-provoking examination of Indian-white interracial marriages. The author has masterfully presented the issues faced by the interracial families during the late 19th and early 20th century periods in American history. The person at the center of the historical narrative is Malcolm Clarke, a fur-trader who failed at being a member of the military. He is married to Coth-co-co-na, a member of the Piegan tribe. The narration follows their three successive generations, detailing the struggles they had amongst their surroundings. The novel chronicles the Marias Massacre. Utilizing primary sources at the Montana Historical Society and interviews with the ClarkesÃ¢â¬â¢ living relatives, Graybill uncovers forgotten history related to the Marias Massacre, an epochal event for the Blackfeet, but hardly mentioned in history. The Marias Massacre, also called the Baker Massacre, occurred on January 23, 1870. The second US Cavalry, under the command of Major Eugene Baker, mistakenly attacked a Piegan Blackfoot encampment with full force. The Piegans were camped near the Marias River, Montana. The attack was so fierce that the soldiers brutally killed 170-220 Indians. While most were killed during the initial attack, eight of them were executed after they had been recaptured after fleeing. The reason behind the inhumane slaughter was revenge for the murder of Malcolm Clarke by his Piegan wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin. The book goes over the aftermath of the Marias Massacre. People living during the massacreÃ¢â¬â¢s time as well as many present-day historians blame Major Eugene M. Baker for the massacre. A known alcoholic, he is held entirely responsible for the Marias Massacre. Furthermore, he failed to accurately report the scale of the killings. The situation was further exacerbated when the US Army discovered that the Blackfoot camp was full of people suffering from smallpox. The political fallout was dealt with by General Sheridan, who supported Major Baker and managed to prevent an official investigation into the matter. After the massacre, the Blackfeet Nation was weakened significantly. They did not have the numbers to retaliate. The book beautifully depicts the Blackfoot tribe of the North American Great Plains. The Blackfoot tribe belong to the largest North American native language groups, the Algonquian. They were split into three tribes, the largest of which was the Piegan (or Piikni in the Blackfoot language). The Piegan was one of the three groups that lived in the North American Great Plains and made up the Blackfoot Confederacy. The other two were Kainai and Siksika. During the nineteenth century, the Piegans were dominant over a large part of the northern plains. Ã¢â¬Å"The Red and WhiteÃ¢â¬ shines the light on the demise of the Blackfoot population. The Blackfoot tribeÃ¢â¬â¢s numbers reached around 20,000 in the 1900s. The population declined dramatically during times of severe illnesses. Their immune systems could not fight off Eurasian diseases. Infectious diseases, such as smallpox, resulted in epidemics. During the year 1837, a smallpox epidemic wreaked havoc and killed off 6,000 members of the tribe. The Blackfeet also faced severe starvation because of disrupted food supply lines and wars. During the year 1882, a desperate group set out on a buffalo hunt, but failed. Therefore, the next year became known as the Year of Starvation. The book also points out the division of borders and the formation of Nation States. Historians are of the opinion that the Blackfeet nation was a confederacy of three distinct and independent tribes. They lived in distinct parts of the Plains. The Piegan occupied the south, the Bloods occupied the central region, and the North Blackfeet lived in the northern region. There were definite differences among the three tribes though they shared a common culture and a common language. The formation of Canada and USA forced the Piegan to divide their homeland. The tribe signed treaties with both the nation-states and reservations created as a result. Andrew R. Graybill shared the whereabouts of the Blackfeet today. The descendants of the Piegan people in the current times occupy the Blackfeet reservation in Montana. The North Blackfeet and the Bloods live in Alberta on the Canadian reservation. The book detailed how the Blackfeet sustained themselves. The Blackfeet tribes partly relied on agriculture and partly lived off the land. They were also nomadic to some extent. When they mastered the use of horses and guns, they moved westwards to improve their bison hunting. Later on, around the 19th century, they were integrated into the cultures of the Plains Indians. The Blackfoot territories shrunk immensely like the tribe itself. Implementing an executive order by President Ulysses S. Grant in the years 1873 and 1874, the territory controlled by the tribe was reduced. The stretch of land bordered by the Sun River in the south and the Marias River in the north was removed. In the year 1887, the Blood sub-tribe signed a treaty with the Canadian government. Known as the Treaty Number Seven, it effectively restricted their land only to reservations located in Alberta. However, the Piegan still occupied a part of the vast reservation located in the north of the Missouri river. Ã¢â¬Å"The Red and WhiteÃ¢â¬ discusses the signing of the Sweetgrass Hills Treaty of 1888. The year 1882 was one of the most excruciating times for the Blackfeet. Even though some buffalo hunts proved successful, they were destitute and 600 members of the tribe died from starvation. As a result, they were forced to rely on the US government. The leaders of the tribe, White Calf and Three Suns, decided to sell of a part of the Reservation to fulfill their needs. The Sweetgrass Hills Treaty was signed and ratified by the Congress in the year 1888. The huge Montana Indian reservation was broken apart. This list of facts is quite substantial and will be a great help to any student struggling with their literature essay. If you are also having trouble writing this academic piece, go through our guide on how to write a literature essay on The Red and the White. References: Ewers, J. (1958). The Blackfeet; Raiders on the Northwestern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Hungrywolf, A. (2006). The Blackfoot papers. Skookumchuck, B.C.: Good Medicine Cultural Foundation. Indians, S. (2016). Soldiers Massacre the Wrong Camp of Indians Jan 23, 1870 HISTORY.com. HISTORY.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from history.com/this-day-in-history/soldiers-massacre-the-wrong-camp-of-indians Schultz, J. (1962). Blackfeet and Buffalo. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. The Marias Massacre. (2016). Legendsofamerica.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016, from legendsofamerica.com/na-mariasmassacre.html Nye 23 Paul Hutton, Montana, the Magazine of Western History The Piegan Massacre , Army Politics and the Transfer Debate vol 32 no.2 Spring 1982, 33 Black, George (2012). The View from Mount Washburn. Empire of Shadows: The Epic Story of Yellowstone. New York: St. Martins Press. Scheick, W. (2015). The Half-Blood. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky Utley, Robert M. (1973). Grants Peace Policy, 1869-74. Frontier Regulars the United States Army and the Indian, 1866-1891. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Perry, A. (2001). On the Edge of Empire. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Ã¢â¬Å"EARLY BLACKFOOT HISTORY. American Anthropologist A5: 153Ã¢â¬â164. April 1892. Grinnell, George Bird George Bird Grinnell Blackfoot Lodge Tales Blackfoot Lodge Tales
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Auroch Prehistoric Mammal Facts and Figures Name: Auroch (German for original ox); pronounced OR-ock Habitat: Plains of Eurasia and northern Africa Historical Epoch: Pleistocene-Modern (2 million-500 years ago) Size and Weight: About six feet high and one ton Diet: Grass Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; prominent horns; larger males than females About the Auroch Sometimes it seems that every contemporary animal had a plus-sized megafauna ancestor during the Pleistocene epoch. A good example is the Auroch, which was pretty much identical to modern oxen with the exception of its size: this dino-cow weighed about a ton, and one imagines that the males of the species were significantly more aggressive than modern bulls. (Technically, the Auroch is classified as Bos primigenius, placing it under the same genus umbrella as modern cattle, to which its directly ancestral.) The Auroch is one of the few prehistoric animals to be commemorated in ancient cave paintings, including a famous drawing from Lascaux in France dating to about 17,000 years ago. As you might expect, this mighty beast figured on the dinner menu of early humans, who played a large part in driving the Auroch into extinction (when they werent domesticating it, thus creating the line that led to modern cows). However, small, dwindling populations of Aurochs survived well into modern times, the last known individual dying in 1627. One little-known fact about the Auroch is that it actually comprised three separate subspecies. The most famous, Bos primigenius primigenius, was native to Eurasia, and is the animal depicted in the Lascaux cave paintings. The Indian Auroch, Bos primigenius namadicus, was domesticated a few thousand years ago into what are now known as Zebu cattle, and the North African Auroch (Bos primigenius africanus) is the most obscure of the three, likely descended from a population native to the Middle East. One historical description of the Auroch was written by, of all people, Julius Caesar, in his History of the Gallic War: These are a little below the elephant in size, and of the appearance, color, and shape of a bull. Their strength and speed are extraordinary; they spare neither man nor wild beast which they have espied. These the Germans take with much pains in pits and kill them. The young men harden themselves with this exercise and practice themselves in this sort of hunting, and those who have slain the greatest number of them, having produced the horns in public, to serve as evidence, receive great praise. Back in the 1920s, a pair of German zoo directors hatched a scheme to resurrect the Auroch via the selective breeding of modern cattle (which share virtually the same genetic material as Bos primigenius, albeit with some important traits suppressed). The result was a breed of oversized oxen known as Heck cattle, which, if not technically Aurochs, at least provide a clue to what these ancient beasts must have looked like. Still, hopes for the resurrection of the Auroch persist, via a proposed process called de-extinction.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Critical Response - Essay Example Population growth and reduction in resources has been a widely discussed dilemma since nineteenth century. However, initially the idea of lack of resources was put forward in 1789, by Reverend Thomas Malthus; his worst fear was global starvation. He pointed out, when growth of a population is not controlled with rapidly depleting non-renewable resources and degrading the capacity of the environment to support its inhabitants; such area is overpopulated and soon becomes the victim of famine, disease or war and requires reducing its human overload. Malthus advocated delay in the time of marriage to check overpopulation, which was purely hypothetical and its implementation was difficult. Malthus predicted overpopulation and tried to stabilize the long term economy of the state, but his theory of late marriages became rather controversial and was considered impractical (Overbeek, 1977, p 4). His theory was condemned by many critics, as it failed to identify the source of the problem and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t provide any potential solution, to increase food resources through science and technology. His theory put a stop on the enthusiasm of some of the scholars, who considered growth of population as a sign of development. None of the attention was shed on the subject as his theories were considered misanthropic in that time. Colin D. Butler further explains the scenario by giving examples from the start of 1934, when biotechnological research reached their pinnacle and increased life expectancy, thus decreasing global food supply to nourish the increasing human population. This situation also alerted politicians, demographers as well as the common public and US presidents of different time periods increased their support to different family planning campaigns in different zones of high population. Almost every Theorist and Scientist accept the kind of stress the world is facing and most of it is due to lack of resources. Arguments arise when reasons of these deficiencies a re being discussed. Anup Shah in Global Issues suggest that the reason to most of the problems might be related to the way we produce, consume and waste our resources, which also reflects our lifestyles and its related issues. (Shah, 1998, p 3) In 1970, new crop strains were introduced by Ã¢â¬Å"Green RevolutionÃ¢â¬ which in the period which was predicted to be shadowed by famine, war or disease. Fortunately, this period turned out to be a period of optimism for health sector. The introduction of contraceptives reduced the fertility rate, but did little to control the annual global population growth which concerned many global demographers and scientists. Norman Borlaug, father of Green revolution warned that the organization can feed three decades, only with correct fertility control measures. After which, China announced its one-child policy in 1979. Infliction of forced abortions and restriction on birth caused more psychological problems than ever. This has imbalanced the nat ural process of reproduction and is an artificial method to control the population, which shows not an extensive change in economic condition. Thus, it has become a reason of reduced production in human capital. (Chow, 2007, p 203) Butler further described extensive revolutions that occurred in the economic environment of many countries during 1970s that led to the concern of overpopulation fade away. US decreased its foreign aid, but continued its policies such as Keynesianism, which